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Cordyceps Sinensis locally called Yartsa Guenbub in Bhutan is a fungus growing out of the caterpillar of ghost moths (Thitarodes spp.) The mature fruit body of cordyceps consists of a cylindrical brown structure growing out of the caterpillar that lives in the ground among plant roots in mountain pastures. The fruit contains many chambers in which spores are formed which drift in the wind. These spores land on the ghost caterpillar and penetrate the cuticle (skin) to infect it. Eventually the caterpillar dies, and its inner tissues are converted into fungal material. Towards the end of winter, the cordyceps grows through the head of the caterpillar, extending in length with the upper part emerging in the spring to release new spores. During harvest, the fruit body and the caterpillar are carefully removed from the soil, easing surrounding roots aside with fingers, knife or a small trowel.

Bhutan exports Cordyceps to Hong Kong and other South-east Asian countries. The cost of 1kg of Cordyceps, comprising 7000-8000 pieces, ranges from Rs.100,000 to Rs.300,000/-. Also known as medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps finds a wide application in traditional Chinese medicine.