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by jyoti — last modified Jan 27, 2014 02:39 PM
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Effective Microorganisms (EM)

These were discovered by Dr Teruo Higa at the University of Ryukus, Japan, as a specific group of naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms. EM primarily consists of five families of micro-organisms - lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinobacteria (actinomycetes), photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, which together have the ability to revive, restore and preserve.

EM is used in a range of applications in agriculture, livestock, the health industry, and in environmental clean-up interventions. EM together with locally available feed resources such as wheat, rice and maize husk, mustard cake and jaggery etc is also used to make multi-nutrient feed supplements for livestock. (Source - Wikipedia)

Meat Manufacturers (Category A, B and C)

As per the Meat Food Products Order (MFPO), 1973, meat manufacturers are licensed under category A, B or C.

Category 'A': Manufacturer who makes meat food products exclusively from meat of animal(s) slaughtered and dressed in his/her factory;

Category 'B': Manufacturer who makes meat food products exclusively from meat of animal(s) slaughtered and dressed in a recognized slaughterhouse and whose factory is situated in close proximity to such a slaughterhouse;

Category 'C': Manufacturer who makes meat food products exclusively from poultry and/or pig meat at places where authorized slaughterhouses do not exist and the total quantity manufactured is less than 30 tonnes per annum.

(Source -


This is a process where cells or whole tissues (frozen semen or embryos) are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures (typically 77 K or −196 °C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). At these low temperatures, any biological activity, including bio-chemical reactions that would lead to cell death, are effectively stopped. (Source – Wikipedia)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

Also known as prion (an infectious agent composed of mis-folded proteins in contrast to all other known infectious agents like virus, bacteria, fungus etc.) diseases, are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals, including humans. Mental and physical abilities deteriorate and myriad tiny holes appear in the cortex causing it to appear like a sponge (hence the term 'spongiform') when brain tissue obtained at autopsy is examined under a microscope.

The disorders cause impairment of brain function, including memory changes, personality changes and problems with movement that worsen over time. (Source - Wikipedia)

Line Department

Line departments are government departments at the state level, with mandates related to specific thematic sectors. These departments may further comprise several smaller departments depending on the size of the state and administrative convenience and can therefore vary across different states.

A line department is generally headed by a state government Minister, assisted by a career bureaucrat, of the designation of Secretary, Principal Secretary or Commissioner, depending on seniority. Each Line Department has a district-level head, such as the Superintending Engineer for the Rural Water Supply Department. Each department also has staff for implementation of work, such as Executive Engineers (EE), Deputy Executive Engineers (DEE), Assistant Engineers (AE), Junior Engineers (JE), Pump Operators, etc. besides clerical staff.


A multi-purpose, locally woven blanket with coarse texture, made from the wool of the Deccani sheep. It is used as a blanket, as protection from rain, for holding and temporary storage of grain, and for seating on the floor.


A disease of sheep characterized by an unsteady gait and staggering, caused by infestation of the brain with tapeworms (Taenia caenuris).


An anti-parasitic drug used in the treatment of ectoparasitic infestations. These drugs are used to kill parasites that live on the body surface (such as ticks and lice). (Source – Wikipedia)


A liquid used to destroy disease-causing organisms.

Deep Litter

It is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use as bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer. In this fashion, this bedding can build up often up to depths of 1 to 2 metres.

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