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by jyoti — last modified Jan 27, 2014 02:39 PM
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Oats - Milky stage

It refers to the 4-5 months of oat growth. In the lower valleys, the milky stage is reached in the months of April and May.

In the higher alpine areas, oats reach their milky stage in the months of September and October. This is the time when farmers harvest oats for hay making.

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Oats - Dough stage

Oats reach the dough or seed production stage after 5-6 months of sowing. In the lower valleys, farmers produce their own oat seeds in addition to producing surplus seed for farmers in high altitude areas. After harvesting the seed, the straw is used for animal feed. In the valleys oat seed is generally harvested in June.
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Oats - Booting stage

It refers to the 3-4 months of the growing stage of oats. The most appropriate time for sowing oats differs in the lower valleys and the higher alpine ranges.

In the lower valleys, oats are sown in December/ January and the booting stage is reached in the months of March and April. At this time no other fodder or grass is available except oats.

In the higher alpine regions, oats are planted in the months of April and May when the Yak herders migrate to the higher pastures.

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Line Department

Line departments are government departments at the state level, with mandates related to specific thematic sectors. These departments may further comprise several smaller departments depending on the size of the state and administrative convenience and can therefore vary across different states.

A line department is generally headed by a state government Minister, assisted by a career bureaucrat, of the designation of Secretary, Principal Secretary or Commissioner, depending on seniority. Each Line Department has a district-level head, such as the Superintending Engineer for the Rural Water Supply Department. Each department also has staff for implementation of work, such as Executive Engineers (EE), Deputy Executive Engineers (DEE), Assistant Engineers (AE), Junior Engineers (JE), Pump Operators, etc. besides clerical staff.


A multi-purpose, locally woven blanket with coarse texture, made from the wool of the Deccani sheep. It is used as a blanket, as protection from rain, for holding and temporary storage of grain, and for seating on the floor.


A disease of sheep characterized by an unsteady gait and staggering, caused by infestation of the brain with tapeworms (Taenia caenuris).


An anti-parasitic drug used in the treatment of ectoparasitic infestations. These drugs are used to kill parasites that live on the body surface (such as ticks and lice). (Source – Wikipedia)


A liquid used to destroy disease-causing organisms.

Deep Litter

It is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use as bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer. In this fashion, this bedding can build up often up to depths of 1 to 2 metres.

Backyard poultry

Traditional poultry rearing generally undertaken by women of poor, marginalized house-holds. The birds are raised in a scavenging/ semi-scavenging system, for household nutrition and food, and supplementary income. Usually small flocks of one to ten desi (non-descript)/ indigenous/improved birds are raised in homestead areas or on farms close to homestead areas.

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