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by jyoti — last modified Oct 29, 2013 11:54 AM
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Effective Microorganisms (EM)

These were discovered by Dr Teruo Higa at the University of Ryukus, Japan, as a specific group of naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms. EM primarily consists of five families of micro-organisms - lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinobacteria (actinomycetes), photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, which together have the ability to revive, restore and preserve.

EM is used in a range of applications in agriculture, livestock, the health industry, and in environmental clean-up interventions. EM together with locally available feed resources such as wheat, rice and maize husk, mustard cake and jaggery etc is also used to make multi-nutrient feed supplements for livestock. (Source - Wikipedia)

Enterotoxemia (ET)

Also known as overeating or pulpy kidney disease this is a condition caused by the absorption of a large amount of toxins from the intestines. The toxins cause enterocolitis (inflammation of the intestine), increase the permeability of blood vessels, and become absorbed in the blood. They circulate in the bloodstream, promoting swelling in the lungs and kidneys, giving the condition the name pulpy kidney disease. Young animals are most susceptible. Sudden and high mortality rates are concentrated in lambs and kids.

Efficiency Index

It is a ratio calculated by dividing the annual return by the annualized monthly standard deviation. (Source - Barclay Hedge,


An anti-parasitic drug used in the treatment of ectoparasitic infestations. These drugs are used to kill parasites that live on the body surface (such as ticks and lice). (Source – Wikipedia)

Extensive rearing

Rearing systems under which livestock are grazed on open pasture lands and village common lands, with minor supplementation of feed. Usually livestock rearers combine open grazing rearing systems with stall-feeding, depending on the availability of fodder from the commons.

Extensive range management system

This refers to the practice of free grazing over vast tracts of land, usually without the use of any supplemental feed


An animal or group of animals introduced into an environment or location to which they are not native.

Ex Situ

The maintenance of an organism or group of organisms away from the place where they naturally occur.

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