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by jyoti — last modified Oct 29, 2013 11:58 AM
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Live Fencing

Also referred to as a green fence or hedge, a live fence is made of living shrubs or trees, usually built around agricultural fields or homestead areas as a barrier to prevent the entry of harmful pests or predators. A live fence is the most productive form of a barrier unlike fences made using mud, bricks, bamboo or barbed wire. Some of the common species of fodder crops / trees used for fencing comprise sesbania, subabul, gliricedia, willow etc. (Source -

Line Department

Line departments are government departments at the state level, with mandates related to specific thematic sectors. These departments may further comprise several smaller departments depending on the size of the state and administrative convenience and can therefore vary across different states.

A line department is generally headed by a state government Minister, assisted by a career bureaucrat, of the designation of Secretary, Principal Secretary or Commissioner, depending on seniority. Each Line Department has a district-level head, such as the Superintending Engineer for the Rural Water Supply Department. Each department also has staff for implementation of work, such as Executive Engineers (EE), Deputy Executive Engineers (DEE), Assistant Engineers (AE), Junior Engineers (JE), Pump Operators, etc. besides clerical staff.


Mature female chicken reared for egg production.

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