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This is a process where cells or whole tissues (frozen semen or embryos) are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures (typically 77 K or −196 °C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). At these low temperatures, any biological activity, including bio-chemical reactions that would lead to cell death, are effectively stopped. (Source – Wikipedia)


The elimination of livestock flocks in the neighborhood of disease outbreak to contain the spread of disease for example Bird Flu. The term also applies to the elimination of non-productive or inferior livestock from a flock or a herd.


Cordyceps Sinensis locally called Yartsa Guenbub in Bhutan is a fungus growing out of the caterpillar of ghost moths (Thitarodes spp.) The mature fruit body of cordyceps consists of a cylindrical brown structure growing out of the caterpillar that lives in the ground among plant roots in mountain pastures. The fruit contains many chambers in which spores are formed which drift in the wind. These spores land on the ghost caterpillar and penetrate the cuticle (skin) to infect it. Eventually the caterpillar dies, and its inner tissues are converted into fungal material. Towards the end of winter, the cordyceps grows through the head of the caterpillar, extending in length with the upper part emerging in the spring to release new spores. During harvest, the fruit body and the caterpillar are carefully removed from the soil, easing surrounding roots aside with fingers, knife or a small trowel.

Bhutan exports Cordyceps to Hong Kong and other South-east Asian countries. The cost of 1kg of Cordyceps, comprising 7000-8000 pieces, ranges from Rs.100,000 to Rs.300,000/-. Also known as medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps finds a wide application in traditional Chinese medicine.


The house or cage in which a chicken lives.

Contract Farming and Agreement

Contract Farming can be defined as an agreement between farmers and processing or marketing firms for the production and supply of agricultural products under forward agreements, frequently at predetermined prices.

The main feature of Contract Farming is that the buyer/contractor supplies all the material inputs and technical advice required for cultivation to the cultivator. This approach is widely used, not only for tree and cash crops but also, increasingly for fruits and vegetables, poultry, pigs, dairy products and even prawn and fish. Indeed, Contract Farming is characterized by its "enormous diversity" not only with regard to the products contracted, but also in relation to the many different ways in which it can be carried out.

(Reference: Globalization and Contract Farming in India-Advantages and Problems, Shoja Rani B N, Government College, Kottayam - Paper presented at the Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporates, IIM K and IIM L)


A feed that is high in energy, low in fiber content, and highly digestible.

Common Interest Groups

Common interest groups comprise individuals with similar livelihood aspirations, resource base and social background, who organize themselves to initiate a livelihood activity. On account of the selection of a similar livelihood activity, activity based clusters are developed.

These groups are provided with requisite technical support including basic infrastructure, working capital, linkages with the market and with banks for successful implementation of selected activities.


The Codex Alimentarius Commission, established by FAO and WHO in 1963, develops harmonised international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair trade practices in food trade. The Commission also promotes the coordination of work on food standards undertaken by government and non-government organizations.


An animal produced by crossing two or more breeds.

Cost Of Production

Combined costs of raw material, labour and other inputs incurred in producing goods.

Contract Grower

A farmer who enters into an agreement with a private company, giving the company power and authority to take decisions on which crops are grown, inputs that are supplied etc. In return the company purchases the farm output at pre-decided prices, which are often lower than existing market prices.


A disease that is easily transmitted from one individual or flock to another.

Confined Production System

It refers to rearing conditions maintained for parent stock, which comprises hygienic and secure housing, provision of balanced feed, regular vaccination and monitoring of health conditions and productivity parameters.

Common property resource

Resource used in common by a group or collective.


The fleshy, red outgrowth on top of a fowl's head; there are eight types of combs and these are used to characterize poultry breeds.


A male chicken under one year of age.


A male chicken over one year of age


Complete set of eggs produced or incubated at one time.

Cluster approach

A cluster is a group of rural habitations/ villages generally comprising similar community groups and socio-economic profiles. In the context of rural development, a village cluster approach comprises the grouping of villages within a radius ranging from 5-20 kms, to better target development interventions.

Chrome Tanning

Chrome tanning is the more modern process of tanning, using powdered chrome as the tanning substance. There are two major stages to the chrome tanning process: production of semi-finished leather through wet blue tanning and crust formation, and leather finishing. Both these stages can be done in the same tannery or can be divided between different tanneries. A combination of manual and mechanized operations is possible.

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